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Siva Nookala - 23 Aug 2016
 Integer literals are used to initialize integer group datatypes like `byte`, `short`, `int` and `long`. These literals are nothing but a sequence of digits. If they are suffixed with `L` or `l`, they are `long` literals. They are prefixed with zero `'0'` for octal, `'0b'` for binary and `'0x'` for hexa decimal formats. If there is no prefix then it is decimal format. e.g., `53, 189, 211012L, 1199l, 0351, 0x12c2a4d2, 0x12c2a4d2L, 0352l, 0b10011101` We can specify the integers either in decimal, hexadecimal, octal format or binary format. To represent the type as `long` integer we use `L` or `l` as a suffix. We indicate a decimal format by putting the left most digit as nonzero. i.e. it is not prefixed with '0' or '0b' or '0x'. `int decimal = 26; // The number 26, in decimal` For hexadecimal format use the prefix '0x', and should be followed by digits 0 to 9 and from a to f. `int hexadecimal = 0x1a;  // The number 26, in hexadecimal // 0x1a = 16^1 * 1 + 16^0 * 10 = 16 + 10 = 26` Octal format should be prefixed with zero '0', and should be followed by the digits 0 to 7. `int octal = 032; // The number 26, in octal// 032 = 8^1 * 3 + 8^0 * 2 = 24 + 2 = 26` We represent binary format as shown below, prefixed with '0b'. This is supported from Java SE 7 (Java 1.7). `byte binary = 0b11010; // The number 26, in binary// 0b11010 = 2^4 * 1 + 2^3 * 1 + 2^2 * 0 + 2^1 * 1 + 2^0 * 0 // = 16 + 8 + 0 + 2 + 0 = 26` For `long` values suffix it with `l` or `L`. `long long1 = 7512884L; // The number 7512884, in decimallong mc_call_number = 8500622255; // WON'T WORKlong mc_call_number = 8500622255L; // will work` For hexa-decimal `long` values suffix it with `l` or `L` and prefix it with `0x`. `long hexadecimal_long = 0xab221eeL; // The number 179446254, in hexa-decimal` The below diagram shows the conversion between various formats. 0
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