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Siva Nookala - 12 Apr 2016
 Java supports creation of methods which help mainly in removing duplicate code, reducing code complexity and increasing its maintainability. For example, the following program prints the max and min temperatures of a city in Celsius units. It gets the input temperatures in Fahrenheit units. Print min max and average temperatures with out using methodsCODE Try it Online`class PrintMinMaxAndAvgTemperatures{    public static void main(String arg[])    {        double min_temp_in_F = 75.86;        double max_temp_in_F = 105.72;                double avg_temp_in_F = ( min_temp_in_F + max_temp_in_F ) / 2.0;                double min_temp_in_C = ( min_temp_in_F - 32.0 ) * 5.0 / 9.0;        double max_temp_in_C = ( max_temp_in_F - 32.0 ) * 5.0 / 9.0;        double avg_temp_in_C = ( avg_temp_in_F - 32.0 ) * 5.0 / 9.0;                        System.out.println("Min temp in F = " + min_temp_in_F + ", in C = " + min_temp_in_C);        System.out.println("Max temp in F = " + max_temp_in_F + ", in C = " + max_temp_in_C);        System.out.println("Avg temp in F = " + avg_temp_in_F + ", in C = " + avg_temp_in_C);        }}`OUTPUTMin temp in F = 75.86, in C = 24.366666666666667Max temp in F = 105.72, in C = 40.955555555555556Avg temp in F = 90.78999999999999, in C = 32.661111111111104DESCRIPTION Here we are converting the temperatures in Fahrenheit to Celsius. We are doing this 3 times. The conversion expression is similar except for the variable name. Instead of duplicating the code multiple times, we could use a method and pass the variable as a parameter. The same program can be written as following. Print min max and average temperatures Using methodsCODE Try it Online`class PrintMinMaxAndAvgTemperatures{    public static void main(String s[])    {        double min_temp_in_F = 75.86;        double max_temp_in_F = 105.72;            double avg_temp_in_F = ( min_temp_in_F + max_temp_in_F ) / 2.0;            double min_temp_in_C = convertToCelsius( min_temp_in_F );        double max_temp_in_C = convertToCelsius( max_temp_in_F );        double avg_temp_in_C = convertToCelsius( avg_temp_in_F );            System.out.println("Min temp in F = " + min_temp_in_F + ", in C = " + min_temp_in_C);        System.out.println("Max temp in F = " + max_temp_in_F + ", in C = " + max_temp_in_C);        System.out.println("Avg temp in F = " + avg_temp_in_F + ", in C = " + avg_temp_in_C);        }        public static double convertToCelsius( double input )    {        double result = ( input - 32.0 ) * 5.0 / 9.0;        return result;    }}`OUTPUTMin temp in F = 75.86, in C = 24.366666666666667Max temp in F = 105.72, in C = 40.955555555555556Avg temp in F = 90.78999999999999, in C = 32.661111111111104DESCRIPTIONHere we have created a method `convertToCelsius` and are passing the temperature to it. The temperature could be `min_temp_in_F` or `max_temp_in_F` or `avg_temp_in_F`. The variable `input` contains the passed temperature in Fahrenheit and it is converted to Celsius and assigned to variable `result`. The variable result is passed back using the `return` keyword.THINGS TO TRYAdd one more input variable `human_body_temp_in_F` and assign it to `98.4`. Convert this into Celsius using the `convertToCelsius`method and print the converted temperature. Create a new method `average` which takes `min_temp_in_F`, `max_temp_in_F` and returns the average of those two temperatures. See Java Methods for more details about how to define methods. Also note that here the `main` method is the calling method and `convertToCelsius` is the called method. The variables `avg_temp_in_F`, `min_temp_in_F` from the `main` method are not accessible in the called method `convertToCelsius`. The scope of the variables and how return value is sent back to the calling method is explained in Java Methods - Parameter Passing And Scope.
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