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Siva Nookala - 14 Mar 2016
One more advantage of using classes is that we can ensure that the data is valid. e.g., the marks of a student should be always between 0 and 100 and allowed sections are 'A', 'B', 'C' and 'D'.

For e.g., in the Student class we have a marks variable. Since the marks variable is an int, it can have any value between -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647. But we know marks have to be between 0 and 100. This validation can be performed in classes as shown in the below example.
Data validation using classes
class ClassDataValidation
    public static void main(String arg[])
        Student adarsh = new Student("Adarsh");
        adarsh.print("LINE A");    // LINE A
        adarsh.setSection('Z'); // LINE B
        adarsh.print("LINE B");
        adarsh.setMarks(150); // LINE C
        adarsh.print("LINE C");
        adarsh.setDetails(90, 'C'); // LINE D
        adarsh.print("LINE D");    

class Student
    String name;
    int marks;
    char section;

    Student(String name)
    { = name;

    void setMarks(int marks)
        if( marks >= 0 && marks <= 100 )
            this.marks = marks;

    void setSection(char section)
        if( section == 'A' || section == 'B' || section == 'C' || section == 'D')
            this.section = section;

    void setDetails(int marks, char section)

    void print(String prefix)
        System.out.println(prefix + " : " + name + " - " + marks + " - " + section);


LINE A : Adarsh - 80 - B
LINE B : Adarsh - 80 - B
LINE C : Adarsh - 80 - B
LINE D : Adarsh - 90 - C


Here we created three methods - setMarks, setSection and setDetails - in the Student class which will ensure the validity of the marks and section. It will not be possible to set invalid marks or invalid section. Before LINE A, we set the marks and section to 80 and 'B' respectively and the details are printed. At LINE B, section is set to 'Z', since the section is invalid, it is not changed. Similarly at LINE C, the marks are set to 150, but they are not changed because the marks can not be greater than 150. At LINE D, the details are changed to 90 and 'A', since both of them are valid, they are changed to the passed parameter values. Also observe that this keyword is used to differentiate between member variables and parameters.

  • Add one more section 'E', to the list of valid sections and see if we can change the section to 'E', using the setSection method.
  • Add one more variable percentage of type double to the the Student class. Create a method setPercentage which validates that the percentage is between 0.0 and 100.0, before changing the data. Add one more parameter - double percentage to the setDetails method and call setPercentage internally with that passed parameter.

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