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Multithreaded Programming > Synchronization >
Siva Nookala - 20 Feb 2017
Synchronization between threads in Java can be acheived by using Synchronized key word. Synchronized key world allows one thread at a time to access a method, variable or an object such that making other threads to wait until one finishes its work or get terminated.

There are two ways of using synchronized key word in Java.
1. Synchronized Methods
2. Synchronized Blocks

Synchronized Method
Firstly we will see how to use synchronized key word and what are its benefits by a simple example program. The below is a simple example program which reserves seats. We have three classes SeatReservation as main class, Person a thread class and Reservation which have the reserveSeat method.
ThreadSynchronization
class SeatReservation
{
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        Reservation reserve = new Reservation(); // LINE A
        Person thread1 = new Person(reserve, 5); // LINE B
        thread1.start();
        Person thread2 = new Person(reserve, 4);
        thread2.start();
        Person thread3 = new Person(reserve, 2);
        thread3.start();
    }
}

class Reservation
{

    static int availableSeats = 10;

    synchronized void reserveSeat(int requestedSeats) // LINE D
    {
        System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + " entered.");
        System.out.println("Availableseats : " + availableSeats + " Requestedsetas : " + requestedSeats);
        if (availableSeats >= requestedSeats)
        {
            System.out.println("Seat Available. Reserve now :-)");
            try
            {
                Thread.sleep(100);     // LINE E
            }
            catch (InterruptedException e)
            {
                System.out.println("Thread interrupted");
            }
            System.out.println(requestedSeats + " seats reserved.");
            availableSeats = availableSeats - requestedSeats;
        }
        else
        {
            System.out.println("Requested seats not available :-(");
        }
        System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + " leaving.");
        System.out.println("----------------------------------------------");
    }
}

class Person extends Thread
{

    Reservation reserve;
    int requestedSeats;

    public Person(Reservation reserve, int requestedSeats)
    {
        this.reserve = reserve;
        this.requestedSeats = requestedSeats;
    }

    @Override
    public void run() // LINE C
    {
        reserve.reserveSeat(requestedSeats);
    }
}
OUTPUT

Thread-0 entered.
Availableseats : 10 Requestedsetas : 5
Seat Available. Reserve now :-)
5 seats reserved.
Thread-0 leaving.
----------------------------------------------
Thread-2 entered.
Availableseats : 5 Requestedsetas : 2
Seat Available. Reserve now :-)
2 seats reserved.
Thread-2 leaving.
----------------------------------------------
Thread-1 entered.
Availableseats : 3 Requestedsetas : 4
Requested seats not available :-(
Thread-1 leaving.
----------------------------------------------

DESCRIPTION

In the above program we have three classes SeatReservation, Reservation and Person. In SeatReservation at LINE A we have an object for Reservation. At LINE B we are creating three threads and passing the Reservation reference as a parameter and running them by invoking thread's start method which in turn invokes Persons run method. Remember all the threads function on the same Reservation object. At LINE C in the Person class run method we are invoking reserveSeat method of Reservation. At LINE D we made the reseveSeat method as synchronized meaning only one thread can access it at a time. At LINE E we are making the thread to sleep for 100 milliseconds.

THINGS TO TRY
  • Create one more thread for Person with requested seats 1 and see the output.
  • Remove the synchronized key word for the method reserveSeat in Reservation.
Note : Remember there is no guarantee on which threads runs first so the output may differ each time when we run the program.

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